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      電機故障
      在家用電器設備中,如電扇、電冰箱、洗衣機、抽油煙機、吸塵器等,其工作動力均采用單相交流電動機。這種電動機結構較簡單,因此有些常見故障可在業余條件下進行修復。   1.電動機通電后不啟動   該故障除了電源回路、電機繞組不良外,大多是電機的啟動電路異常。電扇、排風扇、洗衣機等電機一般采用電容器啟動運轉;而電冰箱、冷柜等的電機多采用電阻分相啟動運轉,一旦啟動電路中的電容器或分相電阻損壞,電機就不能正常運轉,檢修時應先排除啟動電路故障后再查電機故障。   若啟動電路正常,則可能是電動機內部繞組局部短路或斷路,可用萬用表R×1擋測各繞組電阻值來判斷。   如電冰箱壓縮機電機,正常情況下啟動繞組電阻值約為23Ω,運行繞組電阻值為10Ω左右,起動和運行串接繞組正常阻值應為兩者之和。   2.電動機轉速慢而無力   電動機在通電后轉速慢而無力時,對于電容啟動式電機大多為電容器容量不足、漏電嚴重或電源電壓過低;此外鼠籠轉子鋁條部分如果有嚴重的缺損及斷條情況,特別是洗衣機電機經常啟動和正反交替運轉,轉子鋁條較大的感應電流易使轉子鋁條斷裂,也導致運轉慢而無力。   當發現鋁條有裂縫時,可用手電鉆在裂縫間鉆一個小孔,用相應的鋁絲條嵌入孔內,然后將其敲平鉚死,最后用鋼銼和砂紙打磨平整光滑即可。若鋁條斷裂面較大時,有條件的可采用鋁絲氣焊的方法加以修補。   3.電動機外殼帶電   一般要求電機泄漏電流不應大于0.8mA,以保證人身安全。   電動機外殼漏電的主要原因有電機內某引出線絕緣破斂⑴齟タ翹澹壞緇繞組局部燒毀引起定子與外殼間漏電。較多見的是長期處于高濕環境,導致電機受潮絕緣降低而使機殼帶電。此時,可用搖表測量電機各繞組與機殼間的絕緣電阻值,若在2MΩ以下,則說明電機已受潮嚴重,應將電機定子繞組進行烘烤去潮處理。   4.電動機運轉時溫升加劇   各類家用單相電動機在正常工作狀態下,其電機殼體表面溫度一般比環境溫度高20℃左右,最高溫升不應高于70℃。如果電機工作幾分鐘后出現殼體表面溫度劇升,且機內散發焦油味甚至冒煙,則為電機過熱故障。   電機過熱溫升的原因,主要有電機自身質量問題;電長期處于超負荷運行狀態(傳動機構故障引起電機負荷大);電機散熱條件差;電機繞組局部短路等。其中較常見的是繞組匝間 短路,可拆開機殼檢查繞組。如果線包無燒毀現象,可將定子重新進行浸漆絕緣處理,然后烘干。若線包有局部燒毀,那只有更換繞組線包。   5.電動機運行噪聲大   電機工作噪聲大,一般有兩種原因,一是機械噪聲,主要是電機軸承磨損和缺油,產生硬摩擦噪聲。對此可清洗后加入潤滑脂減少噪聲。當轉子軸與軸承松動或端蓋松動時,也會使電機在旋轉時產生軸向竄動發出噪聲。也有一些裝配質量差的電機,軸承室不同心,電機徑向間隙不均勻等均會產生異常噪聲。對此,只要拆下外蓋和后內蓋,取出轉子和定子座,重新敲鉚內蓋的中心軸即可應急修復。   另外,一些罩極式電機的短路環松動或鐵心松動而產生電磁噪聲,應采取夾緊措施?!?

      In home appliances, such as electric fan, refrigerator, washing machine, smoke lampblack machine, vacuum cleaner, its work force are used for single-phase AC motor. The motor has the advantages of simple structure, so some common faults in the amateur conditions for repair. The 1 motor is energized after starting the fault in addition to the power circuit, the motor winding side, mostly the motor starting circuit abnormalities. Fan, fan motor, washing machine generally adopts capacitor start running; and refrigerators, refrigerator and other motor uses the resistor split-phase starting operation, once the starting circuit of capacitor split-phase motor or resistor is damaged, it can not be the normal operation, maintenance should be ruled out first starting circuit fault check motor fault. If the starting circuit is normal, may be internal motor winding local short circuit or open circuit, available multimeter R x 1 retaining measure each winding resistance values. Such as the refrigerator compressor motor, normally starting winding resistance of about 23 ohms, running winding resistance is 10 ohms, start-up and operation of cascaded winding resistance should be for both normal and. 2 motor speed slow and weak motor in power after the speed is slow and weak, for a capacitor start motor is mostly capacitor capacity is insufficient, leakage is serious or low voltage; in addition the squirrel-cage rotor aluminium strip part if there are serious defect and fault conditions, especially the washing machine motor often start and positive alternate operation, rotor bar of large induction current is easy to make the rotor bar breaking, also leads to run slow and feeble. When the aluminum cracks, available in the crack drill to drill a small hole, with the corresponding aluminum wire is embedded into the hole, and then the riveting die out, finally the files and sanded smooth. If the aluminum of the fracture surface is larger, conditional can adopt aluminum wire welding method to repair. 3 motor shell charged General requirements of the electrical leakage current shall be not more than 0.8mA, in order to ensure the safety of the people. Motor casing leakage is the main reason for the motor in a lead-out wire insulation damage and touch the shell; the motor windings partial burning caused by stator and the casing leakage. More common is a long time high humidity environment, causes the motor insulation reduction and the shell charged damp. At this time, can shake table measuring the windings and the casing insulation resistance value, if the 2M ohm, the motor has been affected with damp is serious, should be the motor stator winding for baking to wet processing. The 4 running motor temperature rise intensified in various types of household single-phase motor under normal working condition, the motor casing surface temperature is generally higher than ambient temperature around 20 degrees, the highest temperature rises shall not be higher than 70 DEG c.. If the motor work for a few minutes after casing surface temperature drama rise, and the machine are circulated within the tar taste even smoke, for motor overheat fault. Motor overheat temperature rise the reason, basically have the motor itself quality problems; the motor is overloaded ( transmission mechanism caused by fault of motor load); the heat dissipation conditions of the motor; the motor windings partial short circuit. One of the more common is the winding inter-turn short circuit, detachable boot shell checking winding. If the line package without burning phenomenon, the stator to dipping insulation treatment, and then drying. If the line with local burned, the only change winding line. The 5 running noise of motor motor working noise, generally there are two reasons, one is the mechanical noise, mainly motor bearing wear and short of oil, produce hard friction noise. This can be cleaned after adding grease to reduce noise. When the rotor shaft and bearing looseness or loosening of the end cap, also can make the motor rotates in axial float noise. There are also some assembly the poor quality of the motor, the bearing chamber is concentric, motor radial clearance are not even so will generate abnormal noise. In this regard, as long as the remove outer cover and rear cover, a rotor and a stator seat removed, to knock the riveting inner cover shaft can emergency repair center. In addition, a number of shaded pole motor short circuit loop loose or core loose to generate electromagnetic noise, clamping measures should be taken. ]

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