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      原理結構
      直流電動機是依靠直流工作電壓運行的電動機,廣泛應用于收錄機、錄像機、影碟機、電動剃須刀、電吹風、電子表、玩具等。   1.電磁式直流電動機 電磁式直流電動機由定子磁極、轉子(電樞)、換向器(俗稱整流子)、電刷、機殼、軸承等構成,   電磁式直流電動機的定子磁(主磁極)由鐵心和勵磁繞組構成。根據其勵磁(舊標準稱為激磁)方式的不同又可分為串勵直流電動機、并勵直流電動機、他勵直流電動機和復勵直流電動機。因勵磁方式不同,定子磁極磁通(由定子磁極的勵磁線圈通電后產生)的規律也不同。   串勵直流電動機的勵磁繞組與轉子繞組之間通過電刷和換向器相串聯,勵磁電流與電樞電流成正比,定子的磁通量隨著勵磁電流的增大而增大,轉矩近似與電樞電流的平方成正比,轉速隨轉矩或電流的增加而迅速下降。其起動轉矩可達額定轉矩的5倍以上,短時間過載轉矩可達額定轉矩的4倍以上,轉速變化率較大,空載轉速聘擼ㄒ話悴輝市砥湓誑趙叵略誦校??赏ㄟ^用外用電阻器與串勵繞組串聯(或并聯)、或將串勵繞組并聯換接來實現調速。   并勵直流電動機的勵磁繞組與轉子繞組相并聯,其勵磁電流較恒定,起動轉矩與電樞電流成正比,起動電流約為額定電流的2.5倍左右。轉速則隨電流及轉矩的增貧略有下降,短時過載轉矩為額定轉矩的1.5倍。轉速變化率較小,為5%~15%??赏ㄟ^消弱磁場的恒功率來調速。   他勵直流電動機的勵磁繞組接到獨立的勵磁電源供電,其勵磁電流也較恒定,起動轉矩與電樞電流成正比。轉速變化也為5%~15%??梢酝ㄟ^消弱磁場恒功率來提高轉速或通平檔妥子繞組的電壓來使轉速降低。   復勵直流電動機的定子磁極上除有并勵繞組外,還裝有與轉子繞組串聯的串勵繞組(其匝數較少)。串聯繞組產生磁通的方向與主繞組的磁通方向相同,起動轉矩約為額定轉矩的4倍左右,短時間過載轉矩為額定轉矩的3.5倍左右。轉速變化率為25%~30%(與串聯繞組有關)。轉速可通過消弱磁場強度來調整。   換向器的換向片使用銀銅、鎘銅等合金材料,用高強度塑料模壓成。電刷與換向器滑動接觸,為轉子繞組提供電樞電流。電磁式直流電動機的電刷一般采用金屬石墨電刷或電化石墨電刷。轉子的鐵心采用硅鋼片疊壓而成,一~為12槽,內嵌12組電樞繞組,各繞組間串聯接后,再分別與12片換向片連接。The DC motor is to rely on the DC working voltage to run the motor, widely used in tape recorders, VCRs, DVD players, electric shavers, hair dryer, electronic watches, toys. A. Electromagnetic DC motor electromagnetic DC motor stator poles, rotor (armature), the commutator (commonly called the commutator), brush, chassis, bearings, etc., and electromagnetic DC motor stator poles (poles) from the core and of the field winding. According to their mode of excitation (the old standard called excitation) can be divided into a series excited DC motor, and excited DC motor, excited DC motor and re-excited DC motor. Excitation mode, the stator pole flux (generated by the stator magnetic poles of the exciter coil is energized), the law is also different. Series excited DC motor field winding and rotor winding in series between brushes and commutator, the excitation current and the armature current is proportional to the stator flux is increasing with the increase of the excitation current, torque approximation and the electric proportional to the square of the armature current, speed rapidly decreased with the increase in torque or current. More than four times the short time overload torque up to more than five times its starting torque up to rated torque, rated torque, the speed rate of change of the high-load speed (usually not allowed to run under no-load ). Can be achieved by topical resistor and series excited winding in series (or parallel), or the series excited windings in parallel for access to the governor. Shunt DC motor field winding and rotor winding connected in parallel, the excitation current is relatively constant, the starting torque is proportional to the armature current, starting current is approximately 2.5 times the rated current. Speed ​​with increasing current and torque, while a slight decrease, 1.5 times the short-time overload torque is rated torque. Speed ​​the rate of change is small, 5% to 15%. May weaken the magnetic field of constant power speed. Excited DC motor field winding received independent of the excitation power supply, the excitation current is relatively constant, the starting torque is proportional to the armature current. The speed changes from 5% to 15%. Can weaken the magnetic field of constant power to increase the speed or the speed is reduced by reducing the voltage of the rotor winding. Compound excited DC motor on the stator magnetic pole shunt winding, but also equipped with a winding up petition (the number of turns less) in series with the rotor winding. The series winding produces magnetic flux direction of the main winding flux in the same direction, the starting torque is approximately four times the rated torque, the short time overload torque is about 3.5 times the rated torque. Speed ​​change rate of 25% to 30% (series winding). Speed ​​can be adjusted by weakening the magnetic field strength. Commutator commutator segment using silver copper, cadmium, copper and other alloys, molded high-strength plastic. Brush and commutator sliding contact with the rotor windings of the armature current. Electromagnetic DC motor brushes commonly used metal graphite brush or electric graphite brush. Silicon steel laminated from the rotor core, usually a 12-slot, embedded 12 armature windings, each winding connected in series, and then with 12 commutator segment connection.

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